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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2017
Volume 5 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-28

Online since Thursday, October 5, 2017

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Risk factors and mortality rate of acute cancrum oris (noma) in Sokoto North-West Nigeria: A 13-year survey p. 1
Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Aremu Semiu Adeniyi, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo, Adebayo Aremu Ibikunle, Micah Olalekan Gbotolorun, Stephen Babatunde Aregbesola, Kehinde Abdulazeez, Mujtaba Bala
Noma is commonly seen in children with extreme poverty, severe malnutrition, and limited access to quality health care. To review the records of children with acute noma and associated risk factors at Noma Children Hospital, Sokoto, North-West Nigeria. A retrospective study of acute noma at NOMA Children Hospital, Sokoto between 1999 and 2011. Age, gender, associated risk factors, and number of deaths were retrieved and data analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows Version 20 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corporation, NY, USA). Correlation and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between risk factor and mortality. Results were presented as simple frequencies and descriptive statistics. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. A total of 159 cases had acute cancrum oris during the study. Mean age was 3.34 ± 2.2. There is female preponderance with a female to male ratio of 1.24:1. Measles as risk factor constitute the majority of the patients 75 (47.2%), followed by protein-energy-malnutrition 67 (42.1%). No risk factor in 11 (6.9%) cases. One hundred and twenty patients (75.5%) survived the disease while 29 (18.2%) died. Measles and malnutrition have been identified as the most common risk factors, and mortality rate of 24.5% reported. Efforts should be made by medical professionals to correct acute malnutrition.
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Clinical and radiographic evaluation of glass ionomer compared to resin composite in restoring primary molars: A 1-year prospective randomized study p. 6
Salma Hamie, Sherine Badr, Hala Ragab
To compare the clinical performance of glass ionomer (GI) versus resin composite. A total of 40 Class II restorations were placed in 12 patients aged 4—8-year-old. Patients had to have one or more pair of contralateral teeth indicated for Class II restorations. The two materials, GI (ChemFil™ Rock) and resin composite (Z350) were randomly placed in a split mouth design. The restorations were evaluated using foreign direct investment criteria after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. The result did not reflect any significant differences at the first 6 months evaluation. However, change appeared at 9 and 12 months evaluation regarding; anatomic form, fracture of material and retention, marginal adaptation, wear, proximal anatomical form, contact point, proximal contour, radiographic examination, recurrence of caries and periodontal response. Resin composite Z350 showed better clinical performance than ChemFil™ Rock after 1-year follow-up.
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Surface changes of primary tooth enamel by commonly used pediatric liquid medicaments: A scanning electron microscope study p. 14
Sudhir Mittal, Bhanu Pratap Singh, Amit Kumar Sharma, Kavita Mittal, Ashish Justa, Pulkit Vaid
The present in-vitro study was conducted in primary teeth in order to evaluate the erosive potential of eight commonly used pediatric liquid medications (PLMs) using scanning electron microscope. 8 most commonly used Pediatric Liquid Medicaments and 27 extracted teeth that were near to exfoliation were collected. The endogenous pH of all the Pediatric Liquid Medications was measured using a pH electrode meter. The 27 teeth were divided into two groups, the control group (n = 3) and the study group (n = 24). Three teeth in Control group were immersed in artificial saliva for three different time intervals 1 min, 10 mins. and 8 hours. In experimental group, 24 teeth were also maintained for 1 min., 10 min. and 8 hours in 8 different pediatric liquid medicaments with 3 teeth in each medicine for three different time intervals. For all the teeth of both groups ,the primary enamel surface changes were then observed under Scanning electron microscope. When viewed under Scanning Electron Microscope, all the PLM's showed an erosive effect on the Primary Enamel Surface. Crater formation was found with most of the medications followed by etched prism pattern and sporadic rod ends. Acidic pH was seen with most of the pediatric liquid medicaments used in this study which causes dental erosion. Dental erosion eventually predisposes to dental caries, so it is important to educate professionals and parents regarding use of Pediatric Liquid Medicaments in children.
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Clinical evaluation between zirconia crowns and stainless steel crowns in primary molars teeth p. 21
Bashaer S Abdulhadi, Medhat M Abdullah, Sumer M Alaki, Najlaa M Alamoudi, Moaz H Attar
This randomized clinical trial compared the clinical outcomes of two full-coronal restorations (stainless steel crowns [SSCs] and zirconia crowns Nu/ZR) in carious primary molars teeth. Children attending the King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry clinics who need restorations will be screened for inclusion criteria till 120 teeth are recruited (60 teeth for SSC restorations and 60 for Nu/ZR restorations). Split mouth technique will be used to ensure equalizing variables for both groups. Randomization will be done using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY; IBM Corp., USA). A simple descriptive statistic will be used for analysis using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The level of significance will be set at (α = 0.05) and level of confidence at (95%). While looking at the improvements in gingival health relative to interventions, both Zirconia and SSC have significant changes through all time points. However, Zirconia performed better at the 3rd month with 80% compared to SSC with only 13.3% improvement with P < 0.001 and 0.005, respectively. At 6th month, all samples under group zirconia already improved whereas only 73.3% from SSC show improvement. The remaining samples happened to have positive changes at the 12th month. Regarding the plaque retention also the Zirconia Crowns shows improve performance than SSC. As both SSC and Zirconia crowns presented to be an excellent choice for posterior teeth restorations, however, we can conclude that Zirconia crowns performed better regarding gingival response to the material of restoration and plaque retention despite its high cost.
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Erratum: Is computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing including to Pediatric Dentistry? p. 28

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